“Leaders do not do the work on behalf of the people. They teach people how to do the work themselves.” – Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, zt”l
Parshat Shoftim is a call to just and moral leadership: Appoint judges; Don’t judge unfairly; Don’t take bribes nor be partial and famously, “Justice, justice you shall pursue.” Who exactly is being commanded to fulfill these crucial mitzvot?
At first, it seems these words are directed at judges. However, several commentaries suggest otherwise. These verses seem to be speaking not only to leaders, but also to individuals. The Sefer Hachinuch teaches that the biblical command to appoint judges (referring to a religious court – beit din) is “incumbent on every community, in every place.” The establishment of just and moral leadership comes about partly through the people who appoint them. This idea is further reinforced by the interpretation of “צדק צדק תרדוף” – “Justice, justice you shall pursue.” The midrash Sifrei teaches that this means you (the individual) must “seek out the finest beit din.” We, the people, can take steps to ensure true justice.
This verse is appropriately also applied to Rebbe Yehuda HaNasi, compiler of the Mishna and a model of wise, compassionate and just leadership. The Talmud in Ketubot teaches “pursue justice” means: run to Rebbe’s beit din in Beit Shearim. This appears in the story of Rebbe’s last will and testament, where he practices outstanding leadership even on his deathbed. He ensures the continued honor of his widow (who was only stepmother to his children) and the honor of his household servants. He set up continuity of leadership through his sons and values fear of sin in a leader over great wisdom. He balances honor to a Torah scholar who has died (himself) alongside humility. May we be blessed with the ability to choose similar moral, just and compassionate leaders in our time. Shabbat Shalom – Karen Miller Jackson